Palliative Care

and COVID-19

Resources relevant to Palliative Care and COVID-19

The International Association for Hospice and Palliative Care (IAHPC) has compiled this list of resources relevant to palliative care and COVID-19 published by academia, civil society organizations, member states and special agencies of the United Nations, with links to all of the websites and documents listed.

# Webinar Date Webinar Slides Corresponding Briefing Note(s)
1 April 17 The impact of COVID-19 on palliative care and health systems and Issues specific to Low- and Middle-Income Countries: Resources, Cultural and Social issues The impact of COVID-19 on palliative care and health systems (slides)
  1. How Pandemics Affect Health Systems and Resource Allocation: Impact for Palliative Care
  2. Response to the COVID-19 Pandemic for Low and Middle-Income Countries
2 April 24 Access to palliative care during the COVID-19 pandemic: Ethical and Legal aspects Access to palliative care during the COVID-19 pandemic: Ethical and Legal aspects (slides)
  1. The COVID-19 Pandemic: Palliative Care and Human Rights
  2. Bio-ethical Principles, Practices and Recommendations Relevant to the COVID-19
  3. Global Availability of Internationally Controlled Essential Medicines
3 May 1 Clinical and Prevention Aspects in Covid-19. Palliative Care for patients with cancer in LMICs during Covid-19 Clinical and Prevention Aspects in Covid-19 (slides)
  1. Recommendations for Symptom Control of Patients with COVID-19
  2. Palliative Care for Patients with Cancer in Lower-and Middle-Income Countries
4 May 8 Holistic Care of Children, Symptom Control in Children with covid-19, Psychological and spiritual issues/needs and Voice of a mother Holistic Care of Children, Symptom Control (slides)
  1. Caring for Children with Underlying Serious Health Conditions During COVID-19 Pandemic
  2. Psychological and Spiritual Impact of COVID-19 on Children with Palliative Care Needs
  3. Symptom Control at the End of Life in Children with COVID-19 Infection
  4. The Social Impact of COVID-19 on Children with Palliative Care Needs and their Families
5 May 15 Suffering Alone & Grief/Bereavement Suffering Alone & Grief/Bereavement (slides)
  1. The Suffering of Isolated Patients and Families. The psychological and social implications of physical isolation for patients and families during the coronavirus pandemic.
  2. Grief and Bereavement for Family Members who Can't Visit their Sick Relatives or Attend Funeral Services
6 May 21 Palliative Care for Older People in the Context of Covid-19 Palliative Care for Older People in the Context of Covid-19 (slides)
  1. Palliative Care for Older Persons infected with COVID-19
7 May 28 How People with Pre-Existing Palliative Care Needs are Affected by the COVID-19 Pandemic How People with Pre-Existing Palliative Care Needs are Affected by the COVID-19 Pandemic (slides)
  1. How People with Pre-Existing Palliative Care Needs are Affected by the COVID-19 Pandemic
8 June 4 Palliative Care in Covid-19 for Persons with Disabilities and in Humanitarian Crises Palliative Care in Covid-19 for Persons with Disabilities and in Humanitarian Crises (slides)
  1. Palliative Care in Refugee Camps and Humanitarian Crises
  2. Meeting the Palliative Care needs of People with Physical and Intellectual Disabilities
9 June 11 Inter-Professional Spiritual Care and Self Care Inter-Professional Spiritual Care and Self Care (slides)
  1. Interprofessional Spiritual Care in the Time of COVID-19
  2. Self-Care for Caregivers during the Covid-19 Pandemic
10 June 18 The Role of Telemedicine in Delivering Palliative Care during the Covid-19 Pandemic The Role of Telemedicine in Delivering Palliative Care during the Covid-19 Pandemic (slides)
  1. The role of tele-medicine: Remote access to patients, caregivers and health workers
11 June 25 Valuing and Strengthening Palliative Nursing in the Time of COVID-19 Valuing and Strengthening Palliative Nursing in the Time of COVID-19 (slides)
  1. “Leaving No One Behind”: Valuing & Strengthening Palliative Nursing in the time of COVID-19
12 July 2 Advocating for Integration of Palliative Care into National COVID-19 Responses Advocating for Integration of Palliative Care into National COVID-19 Responses (slides)
  1. Advocating for Integration of Palliative Care into National COVID-19 Responses: Challenges and Successes
13 July 9 Persons experiencing homelessness, Detainees, and LBGT+ People Persons experiencing homelessness, Detainees, and LBGT+ People (slides)
  1. Palliative Care for LGBT+ People in the Time of COVID-19
  2. Vulnerable Populations in Covid-19: Palliative Care for Detainees in Custodial Settings
  3. Palliative Care for those Experiencing Homelessness in the Time of COVID-19
14 July 16 Risks, Challenges, and Opportunities for Fundraising during the Pandemic. Closing remarks - Global Palliative Care and COVID -19 Series Risks, Challenges, and Opportunities for Fundraising during the Pandemic (slides) Briefing Note coming soon.

  1. Abbott J, Johnson D, Wynia M. Ensuring Adequate Palliative and Hospice Care During COVID-19 Surges. JAMA 2020. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.16843
  2. Abu-Odah, H., Molassiotis, A. & Liu, J. Challenges on the provision of palliative care for patients with cancer in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review of reviews. BMC Palliat Care 19, 55 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12904-020-00558-5
  3. Adams C. Goals of Care in a Pandemic: Our Experience and Recommendations, JPSM 2020; 60(1): E15-E17. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2020.03.018
  4. Arantzamendi M, Belar A, Payne S, Rijpstra M, Preston N, Menten J, Van der Elst M, Radbruch L,  Hasselaar J, Centeno C. Clinical aspects of palliative sedation in prospective studies. A systematic review. JPSM 2020. (In Press Journal Pre-Proof). DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2020.09.022
  5. Arya A, Buchman S,  Gagnon B, Downar J. Pandemic palliative care: beyond ventilators and saving lives. CMAJ 2020. doi: 10.1503/cmaj.200465
  6. Bajwah S, Wilcock A, Towers R, Costantini M, et al. Managing the supportive care needs of those affected by COVID-19. European Respiratory Journal 2020; DOI: 10.1183/13993003.00815-2020
  7. Bone AE, Finucane AM, Leniz J, Higginson IJ, Sleeman KE. Changing patterns of mortality during the COVID-19 pandemic: Population-based modelling to understand palliative care implications. Sage Journals 2020; 34(9): 1193-1201. https://doi.org/10.1177/0269216320944810
  8. Boufkhed S, Namisango E, Luyirika E, Sleeman KE,  Costantini M, Peruselli C, Normand C, Higginson IJ, Harding R. Preparedness of African palliative care services to respond to the COVID-19 pandemic: A rapid assessment. JPSM 2020 (in press). DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2020.09.018
  9. British Medical Journal - Managing COVID-19 Symptoms(including at the end of life) in the community: summary of NICE guidelines. BMJ 2020; 369 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.m1461 (Published 20 April 2020)
  10.  Burman R, Cairns R, Canestrini S, Elias E, Metaxa V, Owen G, Polat H, Keene AR, Sutherland E. Making ordinary decisions in extraordinary times. BMJ 2020; 370:m3268. doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.m3268
  11. Ciruzzi MS. Algunos apuntes bioéticos, paliativos y legales sobre la pandemia de COVID-19. La Ley. AÑO LXXXIV Nº 80. TOMO LA LEY 2020-B. Buenos Aires, Argentina 2020. ISSN 0024-1636.
  12. Cooper Z, Bernacki RE. To Face Coronavirus Disease 2019, Surgeons Must Embrace Palliative Care. JAMA Surg. 2020. doi:10.1001/jamasurg.2020.1698
  13. Costantini M, Sleeman KE, Peruselli C, Higginson IJ Response and role of palliative care during the COVID-19 pandemic: a national telephone survey of hospices in Italy. Palliative Medicine 2020. https://doi.org/10.1177/0269216320920780
  14. Curley, M.A.Q., Broden, E.G. & Meyer, E.C. Alone, the hardest part. Intensive Care Med (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00134-020-06145-9
  15. Downar, J, Seccareccia, D. Palliating a pandemic: All patients must be cared for. JPSM, 2010; 39(2), 291-295 DOI.org/10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2009.11.241
  16. Efstathiou N, Vanderspank-Wright B, Vandyk A, Al-Janabi M, Daham Z, Sarti A, Delaney JW,  Downar J. Terminal withdrawal of mechanical ventilation in adult intensive care units: A systematic review and narrative synthesis of perceptions, experiences and practices. SAGE Journals 2020; 34(9):1140-1164. https://doi.org/10.1177/0269216320935002
  17. Ekberg K, Weinglass L, Ekberg S, Danby S, Herbert A. The pervasive relevance of COVID-19 within routine paediatric palliative care consultations during the pandemic: A conversation analytic study. PMJ 2020. https://doi.org/10.1177/0269216320950089 
  18. Escobio F, Nouvet E. Ebola virus disease and palliative care in humanitarian crises. Lancet 2019;393:1100. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(19)30295-8
  19. Etkind SN, Bone AE, Lovell N, Crippss RL, Harding R, Higginson IJ, Sleeman KE, - The role and response of palliative care and hospice services in epidemics and pandemics: a rapid review to inform practice during the COVID-19 pandemic. JPMS 2020; 60(1): E31-E40. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2020.03.029
  20. Fausto J,  Hirano L, Lam D,  et al. Creating a Palliative Care Inpatient Response Plan for COVID19 – The UW Medicine Experience JPSM 2020; 60(1): E21-E26.  DOI https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2020.03.025
  21. Ferguson L, Barham D. Palliative Care Pandemic Pack: a Specialist Palliative Care Service response to planning the COVID-19 pandemic. JPSM 2020; 60(1): E18-E20.  DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2020.03.026
  22. Ferrell BR, Handzo G, Picchi T, Puchalski C, Rosa WE. The Urgency of Spiritual Care: COVID-19 and the Critical Need for Whole-Person Palliation. JPSM 2020; 60(3): E7-E11. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2020.06.034
  23. Fiorentino M, Pentakota SR, Mosenthal AC, Glass NE. The Palliative Performance Scale predicts mortality in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. SAGE Journals 2020; 34(9),1228-1234 https://doi.org/10.1177/0269216320940566
  24. Fusi-Schmidhauser T, Preston N, Nikola K, Gamondi C. Conservative management of COVID-19 patients-emergency palliative care in action. JPSM 2020; 60(1): E27-E30. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2020.03.030
  25. Glass M, Rana S, Coghlan R, Lerner ZI, Harrison JD, Stoltenberg M, Namukwaya E, Humphreys J. Global Palliative Care Education in the Time of COVID-19. JPSM 2020; 60(4):E14-E19. Corrected Proof) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2020.07.018
  26. Goldenberg DL. COVID-19: What It Means for Diabetics, The Obese and Those with Other Immune Diseases. Practical Pain Management (PPM) April 2020 
  27. Gostin LO, Friedman EA, Wetter SA. Responding to COVID‐19: How to Navigate a Public Health Emergency Legally and Ethically. The Hastings Center Report 2020; 50(2): 8-12. https://doi.org/10.1002/hast.1090
  28. Hanson LC. We Will All Be Changed: Palliative Care Transformation in the Time of COVID-19. JPM 2020. https://doi.org/10.1089/jpm.2020.0446
  29. Hendin A,  La Rivière CG,  Williscroft DM,  O’Connor E,  Hughes J, and Fischer LM. End-of-life care in the Emergency Department for the patient imminently dying of a highly transmissible acute respiratory infection (such as COVID-19). Canadian Journal of Emergency Medicine 2020. DOI: 10.1017/cem.2020.352
  30. Hetherington L, Johnston B, Kotronoulas G, Finlay F, Keeley P, McKeown A. COVID-19 and Hospital Palliative Care – A service evaluation exploring the symptoms and outcomes of 186 patients and the impact of the pandemic on specialist Hospital Palliative Care. PMJ 2020. https://doi.org/10.1177/0269216320949786
  31. Heyland DK. Advance Care Planning (ACP) vs. Advance Serious Illness Preparations and Planning (ASIPP). Healthcare 2020, 8(3), 218; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare8030218
  32. Hollander JE, Carr BG. Virtually Perfect? Telemedicine for Covid-19. NEJM 2020 (in press) DOI: 10.1056/NEJMp2003539
  33. Jackson T, Hobson K,  Clare H,  Weegmann D, Moloughney C,  McManus S. End-of-life care in COVID-19: An audit of pharmacological management in hospital inpatients. SAGE Journals 2020; 34(9):1235-1240. https://doi.org/10.1177/0269216320935361
  34. Jennings N, Chambaere K, Deliens L, Cohen J. Trends in place of death in a small developing country: a population-level study using date certificate data. jech 2020. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jech-2019-213285
  35. Krishna LKR, Neo HY, Chia EWY, Tay KT, Chan N, Neo PSH, Goh C, Peh TY,  Chiam M, Low JAYH. The role of palliative medicine in ICU bed allocation in COVID-19: a joint position statement of the Singapore Hospice Council and the Chapter of Palliative Medicine Physicians. ABR 12, 205–211 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s41649-020-00128-0
  36. Kunz R, Minder M. COVID-19 Pandemic: palliative care for elderly and frail patients at home and in residential and nursing homes. Swiss Med Wkly 2020. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4414/smw.2020.20235
  37. Leong, Ian Yi-Onn, Angel Onn-Kei Lee, Tzer Wee Ng, Lay Beng Lee, et al. The challenge of providing holistic care in a viral epidemic: opportunities for palliative care. Palliative Medicine 18, no. 1 (2004): 12-18 doi.org/10.1191/0269216304pm859oa
  38. Lohman D, Barrett D. Scheduling medicines as controlled substances: addressing normative and democratic gaps through human rights-based analysis. BMC International Human Rights 20, 10(2020). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12914-020-00231-1
  39. Lovell N, Maddocks M, Etkind SN, Taylor K, Carey I, Vora V, Marsh L, Higginson IJ, Prentice W, Edmonds P, Sleeman KE. Characteristics, symptom management and outcomes of 101 patients with COVID-19 referred for hospital palliative care. JPSM 2020. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2020.04.015
  40. Lu E. Communication Strategies for Kidney Disease in the Time of COVID-19. JPM 2020. https://doi.org/10.1089/jpm.2020.0217
  41. Masumi U, Martins R, Hendrie PC, McDonnell T, Crews JR, Wong TL, McCreery B et al. Managing Cancer Care During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Agility and Collaboration Toward a Common Goal. JNCCN 1, no. aop (2020): 1-4 DOI: https://doi.org/10.6004/jnccn.2020.7560
  42. Norris J. How Hospitals, Hospices & Care facilities can use Skype to reduce loneliness during the Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic. BMJSPCblog 2020.03.15 
  43. Nouvet, Elysée, Mollie Sivaram, Kevin Bezanson, Gautham Krishnaraj, Matthew Hunt, Sonya de Laat, Stephanie Sanger, Laura Banfield, Pedro Favila Escobio Rodriguez, and Lisa J. Schwartz. Palliative care in humanitarian crises: a review of the literature. Journal of International Humanitarian Action 3, 1(2018):5. doi.org/10.1186/s41018-018-0033-8
  44. O'Donnell MB,  Adhikari EA,  Rosenberg AR,  Yi-Frazier JP. Promoting Resilience for Pediatric Health Care Workers in the Era of COVID-19: The PRISM at Work Program. JPM 2020. https://doi.org/10.1089/jpm.2020.0584
  45. Perez-Moreno DP,  López-Ramírez JH, Torres-Espinosa C. Cuidados paliativos para pacientes con infección por SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19; propuesta de un modelo de atención. Revista Mexicana de Anestesiología, 2020; 43 (4): 288-295. https://dx.doi.org/10.35366/94942 doi: 10.35366/94942 
  46. Pettus K, Cleary JF, De Lima L, Ahmed E, Radbruch L. Availability of Internationally Controlled Essential Medicines in the COVID-19 Pandemic. Journals of Pain and Symptom Management, 2020; 60(2): E48-E51. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2020.04.153
  47. Powell VD, Silveira MJ. What Should Palliative Care's Response be to the COVID-19 Epidemic? JPSM 2020; 60(1): E1-E3. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2020.03.013
  48. Radbruch L, Knaul FM, de Lima L, de Joncheere C, Bhadelia A. The key role of palliative care in response to the COVID-19 tsunami of suffering. The Lancet 2020. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30964-8 
  49. Rosa W, Gray T, Chow K, Davidson P, Dionne-Odom J.N, Karanja V, Khanyola J, Kpoeh JD, Lusaka J, Matula ST, Mazanec P, Moreland PJ, Pandey S, de Campos AP, Meghani SH. Recommendations to Leverage the Palliative Nursing Role During COVID-19 and Future Public Health Crises. Journal of Hospice & Palliative Nursing 2020; 22(4):260-269. doi: 10.1097/NJH.0000000000000665 
  50. Rosa WE, Anderson E, Applebaum AJ, Ferrell BR, Kestenbaum A, Nelson JE. Coronavirus Disease 2019 as an Opportunity to Move toward Transdisciplinary Palliative Care. JPM 2020. DOI: 10.1089/jpm.2020.0306
  51. Rosa WE, Davidson PM. Nursing and Health Policy Perspectives. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): strengthening our resolve to achieve universal palliative care. International Nursing Review(INR) 2020
  52. Rosa WE, Meghani SH, Stone PW, Ferrell BR, Opportunities for Nursing Science to Advance Patient Care in the Time of COVID-19: A Palliative Care Perspective. GUEST EDITORIAL. Journal of Nursing Scholarship(JNS) 2020
  53. Rosa WE, Ferrell BR, Applebaum AJ. The alleviation of suffering during the COVID-19 pandemic. Palliative Care and Supportive Care. Cambridge University Press 2020. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S1478951520000462
  54. Rosa WE, Shook A, Acquaviva KD. LGBTQ+ Inclusive Palliative Care in the Context of COVID-19: Pragmatic Recommendations for Clinicians. JPSM 2020. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2020.04.155
  55. Rose C. Am I Part of the Cure or Am I Part of the Disease? Keeping Coronavirus Out When a Doctor Comes Home. NEJM 2020; 382:1684-1685. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMp2004768
  56. Rosenbaum L. Facing Covid-19 in Italy—Ethics, Logistics, and Therapeutics on the Epidemic’s Front Line. NEJM 2020; 382:1873-1875. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMp2005492
  57. Schoenherr LA, Cook A, Peck S, Humphreys J, Goto Y, Saks NT, Huddleston L, Elia G, Pantilat SZ.  Proactive Identification of Palliative Care Needs Among Patients With COVID-19 in the ICU. JPSM 2020. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2020.06.008
  58. Selman Lucy E, Chao D, Sowden R, Marshall S, Chamberlain Ch, Koffman J. Bereavement support on the frontline of COVID-19: Recommendations for hospital clinicians. JPSM 2020; 60(2):E81-E86. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2020.04.024
  59. Stoltenberg M, Jacobsen J,  Wilson E, Daubman B-R, Ritchie CS, Petrillo L, Jackson V, Aaronson EL. Emergency Department-Based Palliative Care during COVID. JPM 2020. https://doi.org/10.1089/jpm.2020.0285
  60. Sullivan Donald R., Curtis J. Randall. A View from the Frontline: Palliative and Ethical Considerations of the COVID-19 Pandemic. JPM 2020. DOI: 10.1089/jpm.2020.0426 
  61. Ting R, Edmonds P, Higginson IJ, Sleeman KE.  Palliative care for patients with severe covid-19. BMJ 2020; 370 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.m2710 (Published 14 July 2020)
  62. Tran D, Lai S, Salah R, Wong A, Bryon J, McKenna M, Chan Y. Rapid De-Escalation and Triaging Patients in Community-Based Palliative Care. JPSM 2020; 60(1): E45-E47. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2020.03.040 
  63. Truog RD, Mitchell C, Daley, GQ. The Toughest Triage — Allocating Ventilators in a Pandemic NEJM 2020; 382:1973-1975. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMp2005689
  64. Turner J, Hodgson LE, Leckie T, Eade L, Ford-Dunn S. A dual-centre observational review of hospital based palliative care in patients dying with COVID-19. JPSM 2020; 60(2):E75-E78. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2020.04.031
  65. Waldman E, Glass M (eds) - A Field Manual for Palliative Care in Humanitarian Crises (Book). Oxford University Press 2019 DOI: 10.1093/med/9780190066529.001.0001 (open access)
  66. Wallace CL, Wladkowoski SP, Gibson A, White P.  - Grief During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Considerations for Palliative Care Providers. JPSM 2020; 60(1): E70-E76. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2020.04.012
  67. Wang Samuel S.Y., Teo Wendy Z.W., Teo Winnie Z.Y., Chai Yong Woon. Virtual Reality as a Bridge in Palliative Care during COVID-19. JPM 2020 https://doi.org/10.1089/jpm.2020.0212
  68. Weaver MS, Wiener L.  Applying Palliative Care Principles to Communicate with Children about COVID-19. JPSM 2020; 60(1): E8-E11. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2020.03.020
  69. Wu Y, Wang J, Luo C, Hu S, Lin X, Anderson AE, Bruera E, Yang X, Wei S, Qian Y. A comparison of burnout frequency among oncology physicians and nurses working on the front lines and usual wards during the COVID-19 epidemic in Wuhan, China. JPSM 2020; 60(1): E60-E65. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2020.04.008
  70. Wynne KJ, Petrova M, Coghlan R. Dying individuals and suffering populations: applying a population-level bioethics lens to palliative care in humanitarian contexts: before, during and after the COVID-19 pandemic. BJM 2020. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/medethics-2019-105943

General on COVID-19
Issues Relevant to Palliative Care and COVID-19 by Themes
1. Access to Medicines
  1. Jackson T, Hobson K,  Clare H,  Weegmann D, Moloughney C,  McManus S. End-of-life care in COVID-19: An audit of pharmacological management in hospital inpatients. SAGE Journals 2020; 34(9):1235-1240. https://doi.org/10.1177/0269216320935361
  2. Lohman D, Barrett D. Scheduling medicines as controlled substances: addressing normative and democratic gaps through human rights-based analysis. BMC International Human Rights 20, 10(2020). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12914-020-00231-1
  3. Pettus K, Cleary JF, De Lima L, Ahmed E, Radbruch L. Availability of Internationally Controlled Essential Medicines in the COVID-19 Pandemic. Journals of Pain and Symptom Management, 2020; 60(2):E-48-E51. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2020.04.153
2. Alleviation of Suffering
  1. Rosa WE, Ferrell BR, Applebaum AJ. The alleviation of suffering during the COVID-19 pandemic. Palliative Care and Supportive Care. Cambridge University Press 2020. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S1478951520000462
  2. Wynne KJ, Petrova M, Coghlan R. Dying individuals and suffering populations: applying a population-level bioethics lens to palliative care in humanitarian contexts: before, during and after the COVID-19 pandemic. BJM 2020. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/medethics-2019-105943
3. Bereavement/Grief support
  1. Selman Lucy E, Chao D, Sowden R, Marshall S, Chamberlain Ch, Koffman J. Bereavement support on the frontline of COVID-19: Recommendations for hospital clinicians. JPSM 2020; 60(2):E81-E86. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2020.04.024
  2. Wallace CL, Wladkowoski SP, Gibson A, White P. - Grief During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Considerations for Palliative Care Providers. JPSM 2020; 60(1): E70-E76. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2020.04.012
4. Bioethical/Legal Aspects
  1. Arantzamendi M, Belar A, Payne S, Rijpstra M, Preston N, Menten J, Van der Elst M, Radbruch L,  Hasselaar J, Centeno C. Clinical aspects of palliative sedation in prospective studies. A systematic review. JPSM 2020. (In Press Journal Pre-Proof). DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2020.09.022
  2.  Burman R, Cairns R, Canestrini S, Elias E, Metaxa V, Owen G, Polat H, Keene AR, Sutherland E. Making ordinary decisions in extraordinary times. BMJ 2020; 370:m3268. doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.m3268
  3. Ciruzzi MS. Algunos apuntes bioéticos, paliativos y legales sobre la pandemia de COVID-19. La Ley. AÑO LXXXIV Nº 80. TOMO LA LEY 2020-B. Buenos Aires, Argentina 2020. ISSN 0024-1636.
  4. Efstathiou N, Vanderspank-Wright B, Vandyk A, Al-Janabi M, Daham Z, Sarti A, Delaney JW,  Downar J. Terminal withdrawal of mechanical ventilation in adult intensive care units: A systematic review and narrative synthesis of perceptions, experiences and practices. SAGE Journals 2020; 34(9):1140-1164. https://doi.org/10.1177/0269216320935002
  5. Gostin LO, Friedman EA, Wetter SA. Responding to COVID‐19: How to Navigate a Public Health Emergency Legally and Ethically. The Hastings Center Report 2020; 50(2):8-12. https://doi.org/10.1002/hast.1090
  6. Krishna LKR, Neo HY, Chia EWY, Tay KT, Chan N, Neo PSH, Goh C, Peh TY, Chiam M, Low JAYH. The role of palliative medicine in ICU bed allocation in COVID-19: a joint position statement of the Singapore Hospice Council and the Chapter of Palliative Medicine Physicians. ABR 12, 205–211 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s41649-020-00128-0
  7. Lohman D, Barrett D. Scheduling medicines as controlled substances: addressing normative and democratic gaps through human rights-based analysis. BMC International Human Rights 20, 10(2020). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12914-020-00231-1
  8. Rosenbaum L. Facing Covid-19 in Italy—Ethics, Logistics, and Therapeutics on the Epidemic’s Front Line. NEJM 2020; 382:1873-1875DOI: 10.1056/NEJMp2005492
  9. Sullivan Donald R., Curtis J. Randall. A View from the Frontline: Palliative and Ethical Considerations of the COVID-19 Pandemic. JPM 2020. DOI: 10.1089/jpm.2020.0426
  10. Tran D, Lai S, Salah R, Wong A, Bryon J, McKenna M, Chan Y. Rapid De-Escalation and Triaging Patients in Community-Based Palliative Care. JPSM 2020; 60(1):E45-E-47.  DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2020.03.040
  11. Truog RD, Mitchell C, Daley, GQ. The Toughest Triage — Allocating Ventilators in a Pandemic NEJM 2020; 382: 1973-1975. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMp2005689
5. Burnout
  1. Wu Y, Wang J, Luo C, Hu S, Lin X, Anderson AE, Bruera E, Yang X, Wei S, Qian Y. A comparison of burnout frequency among oncology physicians and nurses working on the front lines and usual wards during the COVID-19 epidemic in Wuhan, China. JPSM 2020; 60(1) E-60-E65. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2020.04.008
6. Communication
  1. Ekberg K, Weinglass L, Ekberg S, Danby S, Herbert A. The pervasive relevance of COVID-19 within routine paediatric palliative care consultations during the pandemic: A conversation analytic study. PMJ 2020. https://doi.org/10.1177/0269216320950089
  2. Lu E. Communication Strategies for Kidney Disease in the Time of COVID-19. JPM 2020. https://doi.org/10.1089/jpm.2020.0217
  3. Weaver MS, Wiener L. Applying Palliative Care Principles to Communicate with Children about COVID-19. JPSM 2020; 60(1): E8-E11. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2020.03.020
7. Education
  1. Glass M, Rana S, Coghlan R, Lerner ZI, Harrison JD, Stoltenberg M, Namukwaya E, Humphreys J. Global Palliative Care Education in the Time of COVID-19. JPSM 2020; 60(4): E14-E19. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2020.07.018
8. Emergency
  1. Fusi-Schmidhauser T, Preston N, Nikola K, Gamondi C. Conservative management of COVID-19 patients-emergency palliative care in action. JPSM 2020; 60(1) E27-E30. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2020.03.030 
  2. Hendin A, La Rivière CG, Williscroft DM, O’Connor E, Hughes J, and Fischer LM. End-of-life care in the Emergency Department for the patient imminently dying of a highly transmissible acute respiratory infection (such as COVID-19). Canadian Journal of Emergency Medicine 2020. DOI: 10.1017/cem.2020.352
  3. Stoltenberg M, Jacobsen J, Wilson E, Daubman B-R, Ritchie CS, Petrillo L, Jackson V, Aaronson EL. Emergency Department-Based Palliative Care during COVID. JPM 2020. https://doi.org/10.1089/jpm.2020.0285
9. Goal of Care
  1. Abbott J, Johnson D, Wynia M. Ensuring Adequate Palliative and Hospice Care During COVID-19 Surges. JAMA 2020. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.16843
  2. Adams C. Goals of Care in a Pandemic: Our Experience and Recommendations, JPSM 2020 (in press). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2020.03.018
  3. Arantzamendi M, Belar A, Payne S, Rijpstra M, Preston N, Menten J, Van der Elst M, Radbruch L,  Hasselaar J, Centeno C. Clinical aspects of palliative sedation in prospective studies. A systematic review. JPSM 2020. (In Press Journal Pre-Proof). DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2020.09.022
  4. Arya A, Buchman S, Gagnon B, Downar J. Pandemic palliative care: beyond ventilators and saving lives. CMAJ 2020. doi: 10.1503/cmaj.200465
  5. Bajwah S, Wilcock A, Towers R, Costantini M, et al. Managing the supportive care needs of those affected by COVID-19. European Respiratory Journal 2020; DOI: 10.1183/13993003.00815-2020
  6. Efstathiou N, Vanderspank-Wright B, Vandyk A, Al-Janabi M, Daham Z, Sarti A, Delaney JW,  Downar J. Terminal withdrawal of mechanical ventilation in adult intensive care units: A systematic review and narrative synthesis of perceptions, experiences and practices. SAGE Journals 2020; 34(9):1140-1164. https://doi.org/10.1177/0269216320935002
  7. Ekberg K, Weinglass L, Ekberg S, Danby S, Herbert A. The pervasive relevance of COVID-19 within routine paediatric palliative care consultations during the pandemic: A conversation analytic study. PMJ 2020. https://doi.org/10.1177/0269216320950089
  8. Heyland DK. Advance Care Planning (ACP) vs. Advance Serious Illness Preparations and Planning (ASIPP). Healthcare 2020, 8(3), 218; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare8030218
  9. Leong, Ian Yi-Onn, Angel Onn-Kei Lee, Tzer Wee Ng, Lay Beng Lee, et al. The challenge of providing holistic care in a viral epidemic: opportunities for palliative care. Palliative Medicine 18, no. 1 (2004): 12-18 doi.org/10.1191/0269216304pm859oa
  10. Masumi U, Martins R, Hendrie PC, McDonnell T, Crews JR, Wong TL, McCreery B et al. Managing Cancer Care During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Agility and Collaboration Toward a Common Goal. JNCCN 1, no. aop (2020): 1-4 DOI: https://doi.org/10.6004/jnccn.2020.7560
10. Interdisciplinary
  1. Cooper Z, Bernacki RE. To Face Coronavirus Disease 2019, Surgeons Must Embrace Palliative Care. JAMA Surg. 2020. doi:10.1001/jamasurg.2020.1698
  2. Ferrell BR, Handzo G, Picchi T, Puchalski C, Rosa WE. The Urgency of Spiritual Care: COVID-19 and the Critical Need for Whole-Person Palliation. JPSM 2020; 60(3): E7-E11. DOI :https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2020.06.034
  3. O'Donnell MB,  Adhikari EA,  Rosenberg AR,  Yi-Frazier JP. Promoting Resilience for Pediatric Health Care Workers in the Era of COVID-19: The PRISM at Work Program. JPM 2020. https://doi.org/10.1089/jpm.2020.0584
  4. Rosa W, Gray T, Chow K, Davidson P, Dionne-Odom J.N, Karanja V, Khanyola J, Kpoeh JD, Lusaka J, Matula ST, Mazanec P, Moreland PJ, Pandey S, de Campos AP, Meghani SH. Recommendations to Leverage the Palliative Nursing Role During COVID-19 and Future Public Health Crises. Journal of Hospice & Palliative Nursing 2020. doi: 10.1097/NJH.0000000000000665
  5. Rosa WE, Anderson E, Applebaum AJ, Ferrell BR, Kestenbaum A, Nelson JE. Coronavirus Disease 2019 as an Opportunity to Move toward Transdisciplinary Palliative Care. JPM 2020. DOI: 10.1089/jpm.2020.0306
  6. Rosa WE, Meghani SH, Stone PW, Ferrell BR, Opportunities for Nursing Science to Advance Patient Care in the Time of COVID-19: A Palliative Care Perspective. GUEST EDITORIAL. Journal of Nursing Scholarship (JNS) 2020
11. Issues Relevant to Low-Middle Income Countries
  1. Abu-Odah, H., Molassiotis, A. & Liu, J. Challenges on the provision of palliative care for patients with cancer in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review of reviews. BMC Palliat Care 19, 55 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12904-020-00558-5
  2. Jennings N, Chambaere K, Deliens L, Cohen J. Trends in place of death in a small developing country: a population-level study using date certificate data. jech 2020. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jech-2019-213285
12. PC Response and Role during the Pandemic
  1. Abbott J, Johnson D, Wynia M. Ensuring Adequate Palliative and Hospice Care During COVID-19 Surges. JAMA 2020. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.16843
  2. Abu-Odah, H., Molassiotis, A. & Liu, J. Challenges on the provision of palliative care for patients with cancer in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review of reviews. BMC Palliat Care 19, 55 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12904-020-00558-5
  3. Arya A, Buchman S, Gagnon B, Downar J. Pandemic palliative care: beyond ventilators and saving lives. CMAJ 2020. doi: 10.1503/cmaj.200465
  4. Bajwah S, Wilcock A, Towers R, Costantini M, et al. Managing the supportive care needs of those affected by COVID-19. European Respiratory Journal 2020; DOI: 10.1183/13993003.00815-2020
  5. Bone AE, Finucane AM, Leniz J, Higginson IJ, Sleeman KE. Changing patterns of mortality during the COVID-19 pandemic: Population-based modelling to understand palliative care implications. Sage Journals 2020; 34(9): 1193-1201. https://doi.org/10.1177/0269216320944810
  6. Boufkhed S, Namisango E, Luyirika E, Sleeman KE,  Costantini M, Peruselli C, Normand C, Higginson IJ, Harding R. Preparedness of African palliative care services to respond to the COVID-19 pandemic: A rapid assessment. JPSM 2020 (in press). DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2020.09.018
  7. Cooper Z, Bernacki RE. To Face Coronavirus Disease 2019, Surgeons Must Embrace Palliative Care. JAMA Surg. 2020. doi:10.1001/jamasurg.2020.1698
  8. Costantini M, Sleeman KE, Peruselli C, Higginson IJ Response and role of palliative care during the COVID-19 pandemic: a national telephone survey of hospices in Italy. Palliative Medicine 2020. https://doi.org/10.1177/0269216320920780
  9. Downar, J, Seccareccia, D. Palliating a pandemic: All patients must be cared for. JPSM, 2010; 39(2), 291-295 DOI.org/10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2009.11.241
  10. Etkind SN, Bone AE, Lovell N, Crippss RL, Harding R, Higginson IJ, Sleeman KE, - The role and response of palliative care and hospice services in epidemics and pandemics: a rapid review to inform practice during the COVID-19 pandemic. JPMS 2020.
  11. Fausto J, Hirano L, Lam D, et al. Creating a Palliative Care Inpatient Response Plan for COVID19 – The UW Medicine Experience JPSM 2020; 60(1):E21-E26  DOI https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2020.03.025
  12. Ferguson L, Barham D. Palliative Care Pandemic Pack: a Specialist Palliative Care Service response to planning the COVID-19 pandemic. JPSM 2020; 60(1):E18-E20. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2020.03.026
  13.  Fiorentino M, Pentakota SR, Mosenthal AC, Glass NE. The Palliative Performance Scale predicts mortality in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. SAGE Journals 2020; 34(9),1228-1234 https://doi.org/10.1177/0269216320940566
  14. Fusi-Schmidhauser T, Preston N, Nikola K, Gamondi C. Conservative management of COVID-19 patients-emergency palliative care in action. JPSM 2020; 60(1):E27-E30. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2020.03.030
  15. Hanson LC. We Will All Be Changed: Palliative Care Transformation in the Time of COVID-19. JPM 2020. https://doi.org/10.1089/jpm.2020.0446
  16. Hetherington L, Johnston B, Kotronoulas G, Finlay F, Keeley P, McKeown A. COVID-19 and Hospital Palliative Care – A service evaluation exploring the symptoms and outcomes of 186 patients and the impact of the pandemic on specialist Hospital Palliative Care. PMJ
  17. Heyland DK. Advance Care Planning (ACP) vs. Advance Serious Illness Preparations and Planning (ASIPP). Healthcare 2020, 8(3), 218; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare8030218
  18. Krishna LKR, Neo HY, Chia EWY, Tay KT, Chan N, Neo PSH, Goh C, Peh TY, Chiam M, Low JAYH. The role of palliative medicine in ICU bed allocation in COVID-19: a joint position statement of the Singapore Hospice Council and the Chapter of Palliative Medicine Physicians. ABR 12, 205–211 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s41649-020-00128-0
  19. Leong, Ian Yi-Onn, Angel Onn-Kei Lee, Tzer Wee Ng, Lay Beng Lee, et al. The challenge of providing holistic care in a viral epidemic: opportunities for palliative care. Palliative Medicine 18, no. 1 (2004): 12-18 doi.org/10.1191/0269216304pm859oa
  20. O'Donnell MB,  Adhikari EA,  Rosenberg AR,  Yi-Frazier JP. Promoting Resilience for Pediatric Health Care Workers in the Era of COVID-19: The PRISM at Work Program. JPM 2020. https://doi.org/10.1089/jpm.2020.0584
  21. Perez-Moreno DP, López-Ramírez JH, Torres-Espinosa C. Cuidados paliativos para pacientes con infección por SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19; propuesta de un modelo de atención. Revista Mexicana de Anestesiología, 2020; 43 (4): 288-295. https://dx.doi.org/10.35366/94942 doi: 10.35366/94942
  22. Powell VD, Silveira MJ. What Should Palliative Care's Response be to the COVID-19 Epidemic? JPSM 2020; 60(1)E1-E3. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2020.03.013
  23. Radbruch L, Knaul FM, de Lima L, de Joncheere C, Bhadelia A. The key role of palliative care in response to the COVID-19 tsunami of suffering. The Lancet 2020. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30964-8
  24. Rosa W, Gray T, Chow K, Davidson P, Dionne-Odom J.N, Karanja V, Khanyola J, Kpoeh JD, Lusaka J, Matula ST, Mazanec P, Moreland PJ, Pandey S, de Campos AP, Meghani SH. Recommendations to Leverage the Palliative Nursing Role During COVID-19 and Future Public Health Crises. Journal of Hospice & Palliative Nursing 2020; 22(4):260-269. doi: 10.1097/NJH.0000000000000665
  25. Rose C. Am I Part of the Cure or Am I Part of the Disease? Keeping Coronavirus Out When a Doctor Comes Home. NEJM 2020; 382:1684-1685  DOI: 10.1056/NEJMp2004768
  26. Schoenherr LA, Cook A, Peck S, Humphreys J, Goto Y, Saks NT, Huddleston L, Elia G, Pantilat SZ. Proactive Identification of Palliative Care Needs among Patients with COVID-19 in the ICU. JPSM 2020. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2020.06.008
  27. Stoltenberg M, Jacobsen J, Wilson E, Daubman B-R, Ritchie CS, Petrillo L, Jackson V, Aaronson EL. Emergency Department-Based Palliative Care during COVID. JPM 2020. https://doi.org/10.1089/jpm.2020.0285
  28. Tran D, Lai S, Salah R, Wong A, Bryon J, McKenna M, Chan Y. Rapid De-Escalation and Triaging Patients in Community-Based Palliative Care. JPSM 2020; 60(1):E45-E47. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2020.03.040
  29. Turner J, Hodgson LE, Leckie T, Eade L, Ford-Dunn S. A dual-centre observational review of hospital based palliative care in patients dying with COVID-19. JPSM 2020; 60(2):E75-E78. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2020.04.031
  30. Wallace CL, Wladkowoski SP, Gibson A, White P. - Grief During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Considerations for Palliative Care Providers. JPSM 2020; 60(1):E70-E76. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2020.04.012
13. Psychological/Emotional/Spiritual Issues
  1. Curley, M.A.Q., Broden, E.G. & Meyer, E.C. Alone, the hardest part. Intensive Care Med (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00134-020-06145-9
  2. Ferrell BR, Handzo G, Picchi T, Puchalski C, Rosa WE. The Urgency of Spiritual Care: COVID-19 and the Critical Need for Whole-Person Palliation. JPSM 2020; 60(3):E7-E11. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2020.06.034
  3. Norris J. How Hospitals, Hospices & Care facilities can use Skype to reduce loneliness during the Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic. BMJSPCblog 2020.03.15
  4. Rosa WE, Ferrell BR, Applebaum AJ. The alleviation of suffering during the COVID-19 pandemic. Palliative Care and Supportive Care. Cambridge University Press 2020. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S1478951520000462
  5. Wu Y, Wang J, Luo C, Hu S, Lin X, Anderson AE, Bruera E, Yang X, Wei S, Qian Y. A comparison of burnout frequency among oncology physicians and nurses working on the front lines and usual wards during the COVID-19 epidemic in Wuhan, China. JPSM 2020; 60(1):E60-E65. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2020.04.008
15. Symptom Management
  1. British Medical Journal - Managing COVID-19 Symptoms(including at the end of life) in the community: summary of NICE guidelines. BMJ 2020; 369 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.m1461 (Published 20 April 2020)
  2. Hetherington L, Johnston B, Kotronoulas G, Finlay F, Keeley P, McKeown A. COVID-19 and Hospital Palliative Care – A service evaluation exploring the symptoms and outcomes of 186 patients and the impact of the pandemic on specialist Hospital Palliative Care. PMJ
  3. Lovell N, Maddocks M, Etkind SN, Taylor K, Carey I, Vora V, Marsh L, Higginson IJ, Prentice W, Edmonds P, Sleeman KE. Characteristics, symptom management and outcomes of 101 patients with COVID-19 referred for hospital palliative care. JPSM 2020. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2020.04.015
  4. Schoenherr LA, Cook A, Peck S, Humphreys J, Goto Y, Saks NT, Huddleston L, Elia G, Pantilat SZ. Proactive Identification of Palliative Care Needs among Patients with COVID-19 in the ICU. JPSM 2020. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2020.06.008
  5. Ting R, Edmonds P, Higginson IJ, Sleeman KE. Palliative care for patients with severe covid-19. BMJ 2020; 370 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.m2710 (Published 14 July 2020)
16. Telemedicine
  1. Hollander JE, Carr BG. Virtually Perfect? Telemedicine for Covid-19. NEJM 2020 (in press) DOI: 10.1056/NEJMp2003539
  2. Wang Samuel S.Y., Teo Wendy Z.W., Teo Winnie Z.Y., Chai Yong Woon. Virtual Reality as a Bridge in Palliative Care during COVID-19. JPM 2020 https://doi.org/10.1089/jpm.2020.0212
17. Universal Health Coverage
  1. Rosa WE, Davidson PM. Nursing and Health Policy Perspectives. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): strengthening our resolve to achieve universal palliative care. International Nursing Review (INR) 2020
18. Vulnerable Groups
  1. Ekberg K, Weinglass L, Ekberg S, Danby S, Herbert A. The pervasive relevance of COVID-19 within routine paediatric palliative care consultations during the pandemic: A conversation analytic study. PMJ 2020. https://doi.org/10.1177/0269216320950089
  2. Escobio F, Nouvet E. Ebola virus disease and palliative care in humanitarian crises. Lancet 2019;393:1100. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(19)30295-8
  3. Goldenberg DL. COVID-19: What It Means for Diabetics, The Obese and Those with Other Immune Diseases. Practical Pain Management (PPM) April 2020
  4. Kunz R, Minder M. COVID-19 Pandemic: palliative care for elderly and frail patients at home and in residential and nursing homes. Swiss Med Wkly 2020. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4414/smw.2020.20235
  5. Nouvet, Elysée, Mollie Sivaram, Kevin Bezanson, Gautham Krishnaraj, Matthew Hunt, Sonya de Laat, Stephanie Sanger, Laura Banfield, Pedro Favila Escobio Rodriguez, and Lisa J. Schwartz. Palliative care in humanitarian crises: a review of the literature. Journal of International Humanitarian Action 3, 1(2018):5. doi.org/10.1186/s41018-018-0033-8
  6. Rosa WE, Shook A, Acquaviva KD. LGBTQ+ Inclusive Palliative Care in the Context of COVID-19: Pragmatic Recommendations for Clinicians. JPSM 2020. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2020.04.155
  7. Waldman E, Glass M (eds) - A Field Manual for Palliative Care in Humanitarian Crises (Book). Oxford University Press 2019 DOI: 10.1093/med/9780190066529.001.0001 (open access)
  8. Weaver MS, Wiener L. Applying Palliative Care Principles to Communicate with Children about COVID-19. JPSM 2020; 60(1):E8-E11. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2020.03.020
  9. Wynne KJ, Petrova M, Coghlan R. Dying individuals and suffering populations: applying a population-level bioethics lens to palliative care in humanitarian contexts: before, during and after the COVID-19 pandemic. BJM 2020. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/medethics-2019-105943

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